|Western blot, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry|
Host Species and Isotype:
p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) was originally identified as a p53 binding partner that could enhance the transcriptional activity of p53 (Ref 1,2). 53BP1 consists of two BRCA1 carboxy-terminal (BRCT) domains that allow for binding to p53 and a separate domain responsible for binding to phosphorylated histone H2A.X (Ref 3). 53BP1 rapidly translocates to nuclear foci following treatment of cells with ionizing radiation (IR) or radiomimetic agents that cause DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) (Ref 4,5). Because of this localization to DSBs and homology to the yeast protein Rad9, a role for 53BP1 in DSB repair has been proposed. Recruitment of 53BP1 to sites of DNA damage has been demonstrated to be independent of ATM, NBS1, and DNAPK (Ref 4) and retention of 53BP1 at DNA breaks requires phosphorylated H2A.X (Ref 6). In cells lacking 53BP1, phosphorylation of ATM substrates is reduced, suggesting that 53BP1 is upstream of ATM (Ref 7). In response to IR, phosphorylation of 53BP1 at serines 6, 25, 29, and 784 by ATM has been demonstrated, but phosphorylation at these sites is not required for localization of 53BP1 to sites of DSBs (Ref 6). Within the first BRCT domain (amino acids 1714-1850), there exists a consensus ATM/ATR phosphorylation site, Ser1778. It is conceivable that phosphorylation of Ser1778 could therefore serve to regulate 53BP1-p53 binding.
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